t  h  e   i  n  n  e  r  f  i  e  l  d 
s  t  u  d  i  o  s

After World War II most composers had one or more turntables available for their compositions and in the meantime tape technology had also been developed to a more advanced form. The start of a new stage of electronic music was occuring in Europe and to be more specific in France.

Radio engineer and broadcaster Pierre Schaeffer (1910-1995) was interested in a new form of music and the technology to create new music as well. Together with audio engineer Jacques Poullin he created five compositions in 1948: Etudes de Bruits (studies of noise). He used turntables but also some filtering tools which he had at his disposal in the radio studio. Schaeffer more or less discovered pieces of sound). He used every sound he could think of working with backwards sounds and loops of repetitions. Most important maybe: the work didn't need any human performer to be present. The new music was named Music Concrète. The Etudes were an instant success. It made Schaeffer clear that working in studios had a musical benefit.
The Etudes encouraged classical composer Pierre Henry (1927- ) to explore the studio as well. He teamed up with Schaeffer. Together they built (1951) the first audio studio devoted exclusively to the production of electronic music and Music Concrète, named: Groupe de Recherches Musicales (GRM).

Around the same time (1951) Columbia University, New York, started their studio: Columbia Tape Music Studio. From 1958 it was named Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center. Otto Luening (1900-1996) and Vladimir Ussachevsky (1911-1990) were music instructors. The university had bought some tape recorders to record more 'normal' music. In the beginning the two men had no room at their disposal and used their car to move the equipment from one place to another. Since the two had no advanced oscillators the only thing they could do was to manipulate sound by working with the tape recorders: reverb, splicing, reverse tape, speed manipulation. The first performance was in 1952 were Ussachevsky's piece Sonic Contours was premiered. The electronically modified piano sounds were reasonable well received

In 1949 Dr Werner Meyer-Eppler (1913-1960) wrote an important book: Elektronische Klangerzeugung: elektronische Musik und synthetische Sprache. In the meantime Herbert Eimert (1897-1972) was busy extending Anton Webern's compositions with electronics. Studio technician Robert Beyer (1901-?) linked the two men. The trio collaborated in a studio for a program for the Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk (NWDR). Their studio was built in Cologne. The three men didn't think particulary highly of the Musique Concrète. The Germans were more interested in the physics of tone production than altering sounds (the French way). There was an enormous rivalry between the two studios in the two countries. The German studio had a specialy made Monochord at their disposal. The Monochord was an updated version of the Trautonium. Beside that they had a Melochord build by Harald Bode. The instrument had also two separate monophonic tone generating systems and a five octave keyboard. Notes could be changed by varying attack, sustain and decay levels.

Another studio was launched in Milan, 1955. Radio Audizioni Italiane (RAI) opened the Studio di Fonologia Musicale. Again two men participated in the process: Luciano Berio (1925-2003) and Bruno Maderna (1920-1973). Berio had been present at one of the first concerts for tape, given by Luening and Ussachevsly. Maderna had worked already in the NWDR studio. RAI studio was one of the best equipped in Europe at the time. Both Maderna and Berio worked in a very open and progressive way.  They wanted and used everything they could get their hands on, from sound generators to sound modifiers. Their open mind set attracted other composers to the RAI studio. Well known visitors were Luigi Nono (1924-1990) and John Cage.
Berio's roots clearly were in RAI studios. It can be heard in his later works for orchestra and or stages. The same goes for Maderna and Nono. All three kept looking for new and creative ways when writing their music.

Also during the fifties, the world famous BBC established their variation on the studios for electronic music: BBC Radiophonic Workshop. The studio delivered all kinds of sounds, mostly as musical illustration and effects for futuristic plays like Quatermass and the Pit. Some of the first people to work at the studio were Desmond Briscoe and Daphne Oram. Most famous is the 'trio': including Delia Derbyshire, Brian Hodgson and John Baker. The most well-known production to come out of the Radiophonic Workshop wass the music for television series Dr. Who. It was made by Delia Derbyshire (1937-2001).

Around the same period Philips in the Netherlands was working on their studio: The Center for Electronic Music in Eindhoven. First the studio was simply named Nat Lab; Natuurkundig Laboratorium (in English: Physics Laboratory). It was the place were Kid Baltan (aka Dick Raaijmakers 1930 - ) made the first dance record ever: Songs of the Second Moon. The studio became very popular and after a while important composers like Tom Dissevelt (1921-1989) and Henk Badings (1907-1987) were to be found there. It was also the studio were Edgard Varèse made his Poème Electronique for the World Fair 1958. Varèse  even lived in Eindhoven for a while. Although it is perhaps fair to say that not everyone was pleased with his work.

Besides the already named studios there were other studios established. Worth mentioning are Norsk Rikskringkasting (Norway), Siemens Studio für Elektronische Musik (1956, Munich, Germany), Cooperative Studio for Electronic Music (Ann Arbor, 1958, USA), San Francisco Tape Music Center (San Francisco, 1960, USA), Nippon Hoso Kyokai - NHK (Tokyo, 1954, Japan). The last was derived from WDR Studio.

Studio  at the GRM

Vladimir Ussachevsky in the CP-EMC

Otto Luening and Vladimir Ussachevsky at CP-EMC

The Electronic Music studio of NWDR, Köln 1952

Marino Zuccheri and Luigi Nono, RAI studio

RAI Studio

BBC Radiophonic Workshop with Delia Derbyshire

Philips NatLab