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The first piece of electronic music composed in America by people who didn't actually work in an official studio was Heavenly Menagerie. The piece for tape was written by Louis (1920-1989) and Bebe (1927-2008) Barron. The two of them had kind of a home studio with lots of self-built equipment.  Their home studio had almost the same facilities as the usual studios, but often custom built. Their money came from a monopoly on tape equipment. For their compositions they used loops and play-back tapes but also oscillators to generate sine- and sawtooth sounds. They met John Cage who was searching for a professional way to create his music. They cooperated in their home studio. It was the starting point for other well-known composers such as Earle Brown, Morton Feldman, Christian Wolff and David Tudor. From 1952 on the Barrons were moving more into the creation of music and sound effects for films. They wrote the music for Bells of Atlantis (1952) and The very Eye of Night (1959), but they became more famous for the creation of the music and sound effects for the science fiction movie Forbidden Planet (1956), the first film with an all-electronic soundtrack ever. The visitors in the theatres often applauded spontaneously. To avoid difficulties with lawyers and the musicians union the movie score was not named music, but: Electronic Tonalities.


movie poster for Forbidden Planets
One of the secrets of this genre is Egyptian Halim El-Dabh (1921- ). He studied agriculturale engineering. and became an agriculture consultant. But he derived recognition for his innovative compositions and piano technique. In 1950 he was invited as a guest in the USA. He studied composition with lots of now famous composers such as Aaron Copeland and Ernst Krenek. El-Dabh became part of the fast changing New York music scene alongside Henry Cowell, Edgard Varèse and John Cage. El-Dabh was at this point already a pioneer in the electronic music field. In 1944 he experimented with wire recorders and sound manipulation, arguably the earliest example of electronic music. After his move to the US he worked at the Columbia Princeton EMC, where he was invited by Otto Luening and Vladimir Ussachevsky as one of the first 'outside' composers Together with Luening he created some tape based works. Still famous and now seen as a classic in the genre is his electronic drama: Leiyla and the Poet (Laiyla Visitations -1964). Most compositions have an Egyptian feel. El-Dabh recorded lots of field music and worked as a consultant to the Smithsonian Institution. In 2002 he was invited back in his homeland. Many of his compositions were subsequnetly played there for the first time.In 2005 he performed and ran workshops at Unyazi in Johannesburg. It was the first electronic music symposium and festival to be hosted in Africa.
El-Dabh's early compositions and even his first can be found on one cd: Crossing into the Electric-Magnetic. As El Dabh himself puts it: "When you are open to ideas and thoughts the music will come to you."


Halim El-Dabh
In Brazil the younger Jorge Antunes (1942- ) created his view on electroacoustic music in a somewhat desolate musical area. He studied violin and composition at the University, but he persisted in searching for new sounds. He constructed his own equipment, but he had no space. Working at home meant working in the room his father kept his collection of clocks along the walls. In cooperation with his mother and sister all clocks were stopped when his father went to work so Jorge could record his sounds. A little before 6 pm all clocks were reset again. But even without the sounds of the clocks the room was full of noise coming out from the Coffee and Chocolate factories along the street. With the minimal facilities Antunes created tape-loops only to find out that this approach had been carried out already fifteen years earlier. His studies in sound were mostly organized around sounds and sound colors. Nevertheless Antunes was the first composer of electronic sounds in Brazil. Becoming more familiar with the field of electronic music Antunes worked later in Utrecht and Paris, where he now works as a professor in the Music Department. Antunes has won several competitions for composition. Among his first compositions are Valsa Sideral, Pequena Peça para Mi bequadro e Harmðnicos and the Três Estudos Cromofônicos (study for green and red circles, study for blue and orange spirals and study for yellow and violet points).


Jorge Antunes
Tod Dockstader (1932- ) first studied psychology and art. To earn some money for a new study, painting and film, he created cartoons for local newspapers. When he was 23 he went to Hollywood. His first job was picture and sounds for animated cartoons (Mr. Magoo). After a while he went to New York and became a self-taught sound engineer and sound effects creator. Subsequently he became recording engineer at Gotham Recording. In off studio hours he created and collected sounds and experimented with recording facilities. Around 1960 he had enough material for his first long composition: Eight Pieces (for Folkways). Later Fellini would use parts of it for his film Satyricon. Gotham studios bought their first stereo Ampex recorder and Dockstader reworked the Eight Pieces to a stereo version which was named: Travelling Music. His last work at Gotham's was Four Telemetry Tapes (1965). He left for Montreal to work on the Canadian Pavilion for the Expo of '67. His next two albums came out on Owl Records and have become something of a collector's item. He got enthusiastic reviews but was not admitted to the major electronic music centres because of his lack of academic credentials. He started working in educational services and produced hundreds of films and videos for schools. In the 1990s Starkland re-released his long out of print older works for Owl which brought him great acclaim. The last years Dockstader turned to computer composition in favor of his old tape work. In 1990, he retired, built a home studio and began work on what would become the three part "Aerial".


Tod Dockstader
Rune Lindblad (1923-1991) was a self-thought composer of electronic music and Musique Concrète. He lived in Sweden and had little to do with all the other composers. Therefor he is in a way rather original, but also a little bit primitive. Lindblad composed over 200 works. His first piece, Party (1953), is now seen the first ever recorded piece in the genre. Lindblad was very much interested in film and the use of movies in combination with sound. Owing to his absence in the world of music he was somewhat obscure musician until 1957. In the the Folkets Hus (Place for the people) in Gothenburg he, together with Sven-Eric Johansson and Bruno Epstein, gave his first concert. Maybe it was still too soon, because most of the audience hurried away and critics named the performance ‘pure torture’. In a way they are right of course, you have to have an open mind to listen to electronic music, but you also need a lot of listening experience in all kinds of music to give this kind of music a deserved place of its own. Lindblad was a teacher at the University of Gothenburg. He also worked as an artist creating woodcuts, paintings and drawings. There was and is little of his music released. Pogus Records released two CD’s, Death of the Moon and Objekt 2, both containing early works from 1953-1960 and from 1962-1988. Party is on the first disc. It is highly listenable music, sometimes sounding as a gamelan orchestra, sometimes as a child in an electronic toy store. A sound of its own is the best way to describe Lindblad’s music.


Rune Lindblad
Another somewhat forgotten composer is Karel Goeyvaerts (1923-1993) from Belgium. Goeyvaerts is well known for his classical music, but he also was interested in electronics. He studied at the Conservatory of Antwerp and had lessons from Milhaud and Messiaen. There he also learned to play the Ondes Martenot. In 1951 he visited Darmstadt for a course in music and met Stockhausen. The two became friends. In 1952 they met again in Paris where Stockhausen showed him a sine wave generator. Goeyvaerts was astonished as this seemed to him to be the purest form of sound. Later on Stockhausen became chief director of the NWDR studio in Cologne and invited Goeyvaerts to work with him. With even better equipment Goeyvaerts realised one of his first' electronic compositons. Nr. 5. (Composition with pure tones). It was the complementary composition to Nr. 4 (with dead tones). Until then Goeyvaerts worked as a translator but from 1970 on he started working at the Institute for Psycho-acoustics and Electronics (IPEM – Instituut voor Psycho-acoustica en Elektronische Muziek) in Ghent. He also worked for the Belgium radio as an editor, mainly for electronic music. In the sixties Goeyvaerts tended towards more to minimal music. His most important work is his opera Aquarius.  
Nono, Goeyvaerts, Stockhausen in Darmstadt - 1951